Skip to main content

Table 1 Economic growth and changing labor market conditions in five developing countries

From: Challenges and policy lessons for the growth-employment-poverty nexus in developing countries

  China, approx. last 25 years India, approx. last 25 years Brazil, 1996-2004 Mexico, 2000-2006 South Africa, approx. last 20 years
Economic growth Highest in the world Second highest in the world until recently Slow growth Moderate growth Moderate growth
Unemployment rate Decreased (urban) Low and falling Rose Rose but still very low Sharp rise, then slow fall
Mix of jobs Fast improvements Slow improvements Mixed pattern of changes Improved Worsened
Real labor earnings Sharp increase Positive for all labor force groups Median fell Slow rise Rose, unequally
Income inequality Large increase Rose Rose for several groups Fell Rose
Absolute poverty Sharp decrease Continuous fall Increased Fell Fell because of social grants, not changes in labor market
Overall change in labor market conditions Generally, much better Improved slowly Mixed changes Generally positive Mixed changes
  1. Let us turn now to the more scattered evidence available for other countries.