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Table 8 Multinomial logit for discrete survival data (Baseline: Full Time Career Job)

From: Bridge jobs in Europe

Variables All countries. Gradual retirement All countries. Permanent retirement North/Central. Gradual retirement North/Central. Permanent retirement Mediterranean. Gradual retirement Mediterranean. Permanent retirement
Z 0.945 0.784*** 1.548** 0.845 0.959 0.860***
  [0.077] [0.028] [0.313] [0.092] [0.109] [0.046]
Employment protection index 0.843 0.935 0.286** 0.854 0.522 1.355*
  [0.275] [0.156] [0.164] [0.397] [0.219] [0.224]
Macro controls       
Log real GDP per capita 0.593 9.450* 0.001** 0.945 8.716 16.068*
  [1.444] [11.153] [0.002] [2.738] [43.579] [24.310]
Unemployment rate 0.952 1.078** 0.973 1.091 0.814 1.065
  [0.069] [0.037] [0.105] [0.077] [0.110] [0.061]
Life expectation at 50 1.064 0.990 1.353 0.866 0.653 1.307*
  [0.274] [0.149] [0.439] [0.199] [0.290] [0.209]
Individual controls       
Years of schooling 1.022 0.959*** 1.027 0.959*** 1.014 0.953***
  [0.022] [0.007] [0.027] [0.013] [0.036] [0.009]
Marital status 0.886 0.900 0.739 0.935 2.247 0.789
  [0.222] [0.109] [0.204] [0.144] [1.203] [0.202]
Has children 1.520 0.807* 1.719* 0.772 0.854 0.959
  [0.440] [0.100] [0.538] [0.122] [0.510] [0.230]
Was ill at 50 0.958 1.611** 1.033 2.129*** 0.914 1.016
  [0.341] [0.313] [0.418] [0.509] [0.661] [0.335]
Was stressed at 50 1.481* 1.397*** 1.473 1.354** 1.886* 1.580*
  [0.321] [0.172] [0.396] [0.203] [0.725] [0.399]
Was in poor health at 50 1.079 1.293* 1.236 1.395** 0.567 1.235
  [0.343] [0.179] [0.425] [0.219] [0.606] [0.389]
Was in financial distress at 50 1.341 0.920 0.779 0.881 2.884** 0.855
  [0.407] [0.166] [0.344] [0.229] [1.468] [0.229]
Lived in rural area at 50 0.788 0.952 0.799 0.957 0.819 0.968
  [0.135] [0.079] [0.163] [0.097] [0.237] [0.142]
Job in services at 50 0.681* 0.993 0.763 1.262** 0.523* 0.815
  [0.136] [0.086] [0.179] [0.145] [0.190] [0.103]
Blue collar job at 50 0.867 1.060 0.807 1.199 0.923 0.962
  [0.172] [0.079] [0.219] [0.141] [0.316] [0.097]
Civil servant job at 50 0.839 1.314** 0.859 1.485*** 0.333 0.964
  [0.241] [0.148] [0.265] [0.207] [0.342] [0.208]
Self-employed at 50 0.907 0.328*** 0.800 0.412*** 1.061 0.284***
  [0.169] [0.039] [0.191] [0.080] [0.318] [0.044]
Work experience at 50 0.992* 0.996** 0.994 1.000 0.989* 0.992***
  [0.004] [0.002] [0.005] [0.003] [0.006] [0.002]
Had few books in the house at 10 1.097 1.177 1.121 1.188 0.995 1.049
  [0.231] [0.124] [0.261] [0.150] [0.493] [0.198]
Age 1.106 0.500** 6.413* 0.509 1.353 0.970
  [0.722] [0.147] [6.673] [0.332] [1.038] [0.447]
Age squared 0.999 1.007*** 0.988 1.008 0.996 1.001
  [0.005] [0.003] [0.008] [0.005] [0.006] [0.004]
Cohort dummies YES YES YES YES YES YES
Country dummies YES YES YES YES YES YES
Observations 19,178 19,178 11,821 11,821 7,357 7,357
  1. 6 European Countries. Males aged 55–70. Relative risk ratios. All covariates.
  2. Note: standard errors clustered by country and time within brackets. *p < 0.1, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001.