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Table 2 The role of institutional characteristics for the use of STW a.

From: The role of short-time work schemes during the global financial crisis and early recovery: a cross-country analysis

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6 Model 7
Lagged dependent variable 0.689 *** 0.693 *** 0.695 *** 0.658 *** 0.660 *** 0.596 *** 0.558 ***
  (0.060) (0.057) (0.059) (0.059) (0.068) (0.077) (0.085)
Number of years since STW was introduced 0.105 0.061 *** 0.062 *** 0.078 *** 0.076 *** 0.066 *** 0.098 ***
(0.090) (0.016) (0.016) (0.020) (0.019) (0.015) (0.024)
Log output -4.853 *** -4.272 *** -4.394 *** -4.482 *** -4.547 *** -4.556 *** -5.625 ***
  (1.296) (1.384) (1.197) (1.274) (1.210) (1.125) (1.530)
Strictness of employment protection 0.521 ** 0.463 ** 0.448 ** 0.480 ** 0.451 ** 0.491 ** 0.435 **
  (0.211) (0.201) (0.199) (0.198) (0.198) (0.210) (0.215)
UB net replacement rate (average over 60 months) 0.003 * (0.003) 0.004 * (0.002) 0.004 * (0.002) 0.005 ** (0.002) 0.006 ** (0.002) 0.004 (0.002) 0.005 ** (0.002)
Interaction terms with lagged dependent variable
 Cost to employer hours not worked 0.003       -0.002
  (0.004)       (0.004)
 STW net replacement rate   0.000      0.004
   (0.004)      (0,006)
 Maximum duration    -0.001     -0.001
    (0.002)     (0 001)
 Strictness of eligibility criteria     0.141    0.342
     (0.171)    (0.256)
 Strictness of conditionality criteria      -0.440   0.214
      (0.413)   (0.536)
 Difference of maximum and minimum permissible % reduction in weekly hours       0.598 * (0.310) 0.339 (0.426)
Interaction terms with output
 Cost to employer for hours  not worked -0.123 * (0.065)       -0.076 (0.072)
 STW net replacement rate   0.007      -0.077
   (0.066)      (0.061)
 Maximum duration    -0.013     -0.021
    (0.020)     (0.030)
 Strictness of eligibility criteria     -8.083 **    -9.372 **
     (3.607)    (4.461)
 Strictness of conditionality criteria      15.560 **   12.840
      (7.998)   (10.14)
 Difference of maximum and minimum permissible % reduction in weekly hours       -7.188 ** (3.161) -8.811 ** (3.846)
Number of countries 18 18 18 18 18 18 18
Number of observations 306 306 306 306 306 306 306
R-squared 0.954 0.953 0.953 0.955 0.954 0.955 0.959
  1. ***, **, *: Statistically significant at the 1%, 5% and 10% level, respectively.
  2. Robust standard errors in brackets. Regressions include country time quarter dummies and year dummies.
  3. a) The use of STW, the dependent variable of the regression analysis, is defined as the number of participants in STW over total dependent employment.
  4. Source: Authors’ estimates.