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Table 1 The use of sanctions in welfare agencies (number of agencies in brackets)

From: Intensifying the use of benefit sanctions: an effective tool to increase employment?

a) Sanctions are part of the activation strategy and applied frequently (32)
b) Sanctions are supported but are not part of the activation strategy (41)
c) Sanctions are used to comply with legal requirements (41)
d) Sanctions are regarded sceptically, but nevertheless are used (21)
e) Sanctions have no special role (neither positively nor negatively) (12)
f) Sanctions are rarely used (5)
g) Sanctions are used for general monitoring purposes, but are not regarded as useful in single cases (2)