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Table 2 Description of the instruments: sanction strategy and sanction rate (a)

From: Intensifying the use of benefit sanctions: an effective tool to increase employment?

  Full sample
  4.34%
  Z1= 0 Z1= 1   Z2= 0 Z2= 1
  4.01% 5.75%   1.89% 6.54%
Sanctioned 500 167   137 530
Non-sanctioned 11,957 2,737   7,121 7,573
Total observations 15,361
  1. aRemarks: Z1 refers to the sanction strategy of welfare agencies. Z1 = 0 denotes less strict agencies and Z1 = 1 denotes frequently sanctioning agencies. Z2 refers to the actually observed sanction rates within welfare agencies. Z2 = 0 denotes agencies with a sanction rate below the median and Z2 = 1 denotes agencies with a sanction rate above the median.