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Table 3 Descriptive statistics (a)

From: Intensifying the use of benefit sanctions: an effective tool to increase employment?

  S= 0 S= 1 p-val. Z1= 0 Z1= 1 p-val. Z2= 0 Z2= 1 p-val.
Gender
Male 0.459 0.565 0.000 0.464 0.464 0.973 0.465 0.463 0.821
Age
18–24 0.203 0.381 0.000 0.210 0.217 0.422 0.209 0.213 0.469
25–34 0.207 0.258 0.002 0.209 0.208 0.863 0.205 0.213 0.264
35–44 0.211 0.174 0.023 0.209 0.207 0.798 0.210 0.208 0.726
45–57 0.379 0.187 0.000 0.371 0.368 0.751 0.376 0.366 0.208
Schooling
Secondary general school 0.443 0.505 0.001 0.441 0.466 0.013 0.412 0.475 0.000
Intermediate secondary school 0.338 0.262 0.000 0.338 0.319 0.045 0.376 0.297 0.000
University entrance diploma 0.160 0.123 0.010 0.160 0.154 0.467 0.156 0.161 0.332
Other or missing 0.059 0.109 0.000 0.061 0.061 0.939 0.056 0.066 0.006
Migration background
Migrant 0.247 0.258 0.539 0.252 0.231 0.018 0.223 0.270 0.000
Household size
1 person 0.345 0.402 0.003 0.341 0.376 0.000 0.323 0.370 0.000
2 persons 0.278 0.229 0.006 0.280 0.257 0.011 0.295 0.258 0.000
3 or more persons 0.377 0.369 0.666 0.379 0.367 0.233 0.383 0.371 0.155
Number of children
No children 0.611 0.651 0.040 0.609 0.629 0.040 0.610 0.615 0.548
1 child 0.214 0.201 0.425 0.216 0.203 0.140 0.223 0.205 0.006
2 or more children 0.175 0.148 0.075 0.176 0.167 0.293 0.167 0.180 0.030
Obstacles to employment
Disabled person 0.105 0.054 0.000 0.103 0.101 0.766 0.098 0.106 0.119
Care obligation 0.033 0.019 0.055 0.033 0.030 0.488 0.035 0.030 0.065
Status before receipt of welfare benefits
(Minor) employment 0.322 0.396 0.000 0.326 0.325 0.943 0.319 0.331 0.109
Number of previous unemployment spells
0 or 1 0.389 0.370 0.340 0.387 0.393 0.541 0.391 0.385 0.418
2 or 3 0.370 0.379 0.624 0.373 0.358 0.130 0.364 0.376 0.150
4 or more 0.183 0.196 0.384 0.183 0.187 0.606 0.188 0.180 0.209
Missing 0.058 0.054 0.644 0.057 0.062 0.317 0.056 0.059 0.428
Regional information
City district 0.300 0.337 0.040 0.289 0.355 0.000 0.283 0.318 0.000
East Germany 0.253 0.153 0.000 0.244 0.267 0.009 0.369 0.140 0.000
Unemployment ratio (high) 0.255 0.160 0.000 0.247 0.263 0.074 0.366 0.147 0.000
GDP (high) 0.286 0.361 0.000 0.291 0.280 0.216 0.209 0.360 0.000
Welfare ratio (high) 0.284 0.289 0.779 0.276 0.323 0.000 0.281 0.287 0.404
Current welfare spell
Months in welfare before 10/2006 12,437 10,927 0.000 12,356 12,440 0.660 12.806 11.982 0.000
Start after 10/2006 or missing 0.183 0.178 0.774 0.186 0.170 0.047 0.183 0.182 0.912
Observations 14,694 667 15,361 12,457 2,904 15,361 7,258 8,103 15,361
  1. aRemarks: S = 0 denotes non-sanctioned individuals and S=1 denotes sanctioned individuals. Z1 refers to the sanction strategy of welfare agencies. Z1 = 0 denotes less strict agencies and Z1 = 1 denotes frequently sanctioning agencies. Z2 refers to the actually observed sanction rates within welfare agencies. Z2 = 0 denotes welfare agencies with a sanction rate below the median and Z2 = 1 denotes agencies with a sanction rate above the median. The p-values derive from t-tests on the equality of means of the displayed variables for S = 0 and S = 1, for Z1 = 0 and Z1 = 1 and for Z2 = 0 and Z2 = 1, respectively.