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Table 4 Description of the outcome variable self-sufficient employment

From: Intensifying the use of benefit sanctions: an effective tool to increase employment?

  Z 1 Z 2
  Z1= 0 Z1= 1 Z2= 0 Z2= 1
  S = 0 S = 1 S = 0 S = 1 S = 0 S = 1 S = 0 S = 1
Month         
1 0.0591 0.0260 0.0617 0.0240 0.0524 0.0292 0.0664 0.0245
2 0.0648 0.0460 0.0745 0.0479 0.0588 0.0511 0.0739 0.0453
3 0.0736 0.0560 0.0811 0.0898 0.0653 0.0511 0.0841 0.0679
4 0.0840 0.0640 0.0891 0.1257 0.0729 0.0657 0.0964 0.0830
5 0.0965 0.0740 0.1023 0.1677 0.0829 0.0876 0.1114 0.1000
6 0.1059 0.0880 0.1155 0.2036 0.0932 0.0949 0.1212 0.1226
  1. Remarks: The outcome variable is defined to be 1 if an individual is employed and does not receive welfare benefits anymore. Otherwise, the variable is 0. The variable is displayed for the first six months after the (hypothetical) sanction date. S = 0 denotes non-sanctioned individuals, and S = 1 denotes sanctioned individuals. Z1 refers to the sanction strategy of welfare agencies. Z1 = 0 denotes less strict agencies, and Z1 = 1 denotes frequently sanctioning agencies. Z2 refers to the observed sanction rates within welfare agencies. Z2 = 0 denotes welfare agencies with a sanction rate below the median across all 154 sampled agencies, and Z2 = 1 denotes agencies with a sanction rate above the median.