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Table 1 Benefits from education across different perspectives

From: The costs of early school leaving in Europe

P - Private benefits (1) Gain in net earnings and wealth
+ (2) Improved health status/life expectancy
+ (3) Household productivity gains
- (4) Fees for education
F - Fiscal or government (state/local and federal/central) (5) Increased tax payments
+ (6) Lower reliance on government health programs
+ (7) Reduced expenditures on criminal justice
+ (8) Lower reliance on welfare
- (9) Subsidies for education
S – Social Private individual benefits
+ Fiscal benefits
+ (10) Productivity externalities
+ (11) Gains from reduced crime
+ (12) Social value of health
  1. Source: Belfield 2008.