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Table 3 Estimated returns from additional education

From: The costs of early school leaving in Europe

  Males Females
  Tertiary over upper secondary Upper secondary over lower secondary Tertiary over upper secondary Upper secondary over lower secondary
Relative wage gain for the continuously employed 30% 4% 35% 10%
Relative wage gain corrected for the probability of unemployment 52% 35% 66% 46%
Present value of investment 88,523 dollars 40,378 dollars 64,451 dollars 31,837 dollars
  1. Source: Anspal et al. 2011.
  2. Estonia.