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Table 2 Hiring costs in Europe

From: Return on investment of apprenticeship systems for enterprises: Evidence from cost-benefit analyses

Study Country Costs Hiring costs as percentage of wage bill Hiring costs as percentage of monthly pay
Manning (2006) United Kingdom Recruitment and training costs 2.4%-11.2% n/a
Brown et al. (2001) United Kingdom Recruitment and training costs 2.3%-11% 55%-118%
Abowd and Kramarz (2003) and Kramarz and Michaud (2010) France Training and external hiring costs, no internal hiring costs 2.8% n/a
Blatter et al. (2012a) Switzerland Recruitment and training costs 3.3% 244%
Muehlemann and Pfeifer (2012) Germany Recruitment and training costs 1.9% 200%
  1. Extended and updated table based on Manning (2011).