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Table 3 Examples of project-identified models

From: Supporting self-employment and small-scale entrepreneurship: potential programs to improve livelihoods for vulnerable workers

Model General description Constraints addressed Implementation considerations Specifications for very vulnerable/self-employed Examples
Value chain approach Refers to all activities and services that bring a product (or service) from conception to end use in a particular industry. The focus is on the system, on end markets, and on relationships. An opportunity exists to integrate the self-employed that have been catering to the local market. Access to markets and networks Mapping a value chain is time intensive and costly Aggregated businesses are often necessary for farmers/self-employed to access a value chain Green World Bayer Crop Science
Information asymmetries Extensive relationship building required Technical skills and quality must be upgraded Technoserv
Transportation constraints Because the focus is on a specific sector and value chain, it might exclude some beneficiaries, due to industry needs Curricula may need to be modified for lack of literacy
Access to input markets
Business idea generation Inclusion of literacy and numeracy training, as well as psycho-social support
Product quality
Micro-franchising Package interventions that provide beneficiaries with comprehensive support to enable them to replicate existing and proved business model and product. Microfranchise opportunities allow self-employment with features of wage employment: the microfranchisees do not need to devise business models of their own but have minimal supervision. Reduces risk from potential entrepreneurs Limited business scalability in any given sector Inclusion of literacy and numeracy training, as well as psycho-social support Coca Cola manual distribution centers
Low business knowledge/skills required Costs associated with product advances lost or damaged, and product dissemination Basic accounting skills Girls Empowered by Micro Franchise International Rescue Committee
Customer service skills
Liquidity often addressed through product advances
Pricing support
Business idea/product generation
Vertical networking