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Table 1 Changes in bargaining coverage and union density, 1995–2010, and in density since peak

From: Collective bargaining systems and macroeconomic and microeconomic flexibility: the quest for appropriate institutional forms in advanced economies

  Bargaining coverage (%) Union density (%)
1995 2010 2013 Change 1995 2010 2013 Change Change from peak
Austria 98.3 99.0 98.0 0.7 41.1 28.4 27.4 −12.7 −56.8 (1960)
Belgium 96.0 96.0 99.0 0.0 55.7 50.6 55.4 −5.1 −9.2 (1995)
Germany 76.0 61.1 57.6 −15.0 29.2 18.6 17.7 −10.7 −48.3 (1991)
The Netherlands 82.3 84.3 84.8 2.0 25.7 18.6 17.6 −7.0 −50.8 (1960)
Switzerland 41.7 49.1 48.6 7.3 22.7 17.2 16.2 −5.5 −52.4 (1960)
Finland 85.0 89.5 93.0 4.5 80.4 70.0 68.6 −10.5 −13.3 (1993)
Sweden 94.0 91.0 89.0 −3.0 83.1 68.4 67.7 −14.7 −21.2 (1994)
Norway 72.0 74.0 66.9 2.0 57.3 54.8 63.5 −2.5 −9.9 (1961)
Denmark 84.0 85.0 84.0 1.0 77.0 68.5 66.8 −8.4 −24.8 (1987)
Italy 85.0 85.0 80.0 0.0 38.1 35.5 36.9 −2.6 −29.7 (1976)
Spain 80.0 73.2 79.1 −6.8 16.3 15.6 17.5 −0.8 −16.6 (1980)
Portugal 94.0 80.0 67.0 −14.0 25.4 19.3 20.5 −6.0 −64.8 (1980)
Greece 65.0 65.0 40.0 0.0 31.3 25.4 21.3 −5.9 −34.9 (1980)
France 90.0 92.0 98.0 2.0 7.90 7.90 7.70 −0.9 −64.4 (1969)
Luxembourg 60.0 58.0 59.0 −2.0 43.5 37.0 32.8 −6.5 −20.9 (1970)
Australia 70.0 45.0 61.0 −25.0 32.1 18.0 17.0 −14.1 −64.1 (1976)
Ireland 40.0 42.2 32.4 2.2 48.1 33.5 29.6 −14.6 −42.8 (1978)
UK 36.0 30.8 29.5 −5.2 33.1 26.5 25.4 −6.6 −47.7 (1978)
Canada 36.7 31.6 29.0 −5.1 33.7 27.4 27.2 −6.3 −16.4 (1984)
Japan 21.5 16.0 19.6 −5.5 24.4 18.4 17.8 −6.0 −48.2 (1964)
New Zealand 43.3 17.0 15.0 −26.3 27.2 20.8 19.4 −6.4 −69.9 (1980)
USA 16.7 13.1 11.9 −3.6 14.3 11.4 10.8 −2.9 −63.1 (1960)
  1. Sources: Visser (2013); Schnabel (2013); Pontusson (2013); OECD.Stat. Figures in italics indicate corresponding values for 2013. Peak year given in parentheses