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Table 2 The presence of company-level pacts and opening clauses in Germany (in percent of employment)

From: Collective bargaining systems and macroeconomic and microeconomic flexibility: the quest for appropriate institutional forms in advanced economies

Year Pactsa Opening clausesb Pacts in establishments with opening clauses Opening clauses in establishments bound by a collective agreement Pacts in establishments bound by a collective agreement Pacts in establishments without collective agreements Pacts in establishments using opening clauses Use of opening clauses in establishments bound by collective agreements Use of opening clauses in establishments with opening clauses
2005 31.6 37.2 49.3 43.2 35.3 8.4 59.6 24.1 56.0
2006 31.0 29.8 57.1 42.2 34.5 7.4    
2007 30.1 37.5 45.7 44.9 34.7 6.7 51.2 24.7 55.1
2008 30.6 30.4 49.0 39.9 35.1 7.4    
2009 33.9 29.0 54.8 40.0 38.1 12.9    
2010 21.6 47.4 38.9 60.6 25.7 3.5    
2011 24.2 50.7 40.2 62.1 28.5 3.8 44.6 48.9 78.8
2012 24.7 48.4 43.2 62.8 29.3 4.7    
2013 27.1 46.5 49.9 61.5 32.0 5.1    
  1. Source: author’s calculations. The reported sample probabilities are based on the annual IAB Establishment Panel (IAB-Betriebspanel), 2005–2013, unweighted data
  2. aQuestions on pact status are asked in the 2006, 2008, 2009, and 2013 waves of the IAB Establishment Panel
  3. bQuestions on opening clause status are asked in the 2005, 2007, and 2011 waves of the IAB Establishment Panel