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Table 1 Prior field experiments on the employability of ex-offenders

From: The employability of ex-offenders: a field experiment in the Swedish labor market

Study, design, country Crime stimuli CVs Jobs Ratio
Schwartz and Skolnick (1962), correspondence, USA Assault, unstated punishment 100 100 2.70**
Buikhuisen and Dijksterhuis (1971), correspondence, Netherlands Theft, drunk driving, revoked driver license 150 150 1.79***
Boshier and Johnson (1974), correspondence, New Zealand Theft, drunk driving, unstated punishment 122 61 1.22
Pager (2003), audit, USA Drug felony, 18 months of jail 700 350 2.26***
Pager et al. (2009a), audit, USA Drug felony, 18 months of jail 340 340 1.80***
Pager et al. (2009b), audit, USA Drug felony, 18 months of jail 500 250 1.87***
Uggen et al. (2014), audit, USA Disorderly conduct, no charge or conviction 600 300 1.14
Baert and Verhofstadt (2015), correspondence, Belgium Juvenile delinquency, 1 year of open detention 972 486 1.29*
Decker et al. (2015), audit, USA Drug felony, 6 months of jail 266 57 1.77*
Decker et al. (2015), correspondence, USA Drug felony, 6 months of jail 3108 518 1.16
Agan and Starr (2016, 2017), correspondence, USA Drug or property felony, unstated punishment 2655 1426 1.60***
  1. Notes: Ratio is calculated by dividing the positive employer response rate for the non-offenders by the positive employer response rate for the ex-offenders. A simple Z test is used to determine statistically significant differences between non-offenders and ex-offenders in positive employer response rates. If the number of CVs is larger than the number of jobs for a study, it indicates that more than one application was sent to each employer. Only male job applicants were used in all prior studies. Studies by Pager and associates, Uggen et al. (2014), Decker et al. (2015), and Agan and Starr (2016, 2017) also included an element of race, which is disregarded here. Only overall differences in the probability of receiving a positive response from employers between comparable ex-offenders and non-offenders are considered here. Agan and Starr (2016) conducted a before-and-after analysis of the “Ban-the-Box” movement (i.e., preventing employers from asking criminal background-related questions) in the USA. Only a subset of their data from the pre-policy period, given in Agan and Starr (2017), is considered here
  2. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.10