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Table 4 Distribution of employers’ responses to the fictitious job applicants

From: The employability of ex-offenders: a field experiment in the Swedish labor market

Occupation Number of employers Neither Both Non-offender Ex-offender Net discrimination
Accounting clerk 74 53 2 17 2 −15***
Auto mechanic 66 46 12 5 3 −2
Cleaner 132 111 9 11 1 −10***
Enrolled nurse 71 43 7 14 7 −7
Preschool teacher 136 69 30 36 1 −35***
Restaurant worker 301 220 40 34 7 −27***
Salesperson 69 43 11 12 3 −9**
Software developer 71 36 14 19 2 −17***
Truck driver 119 101 10 3 5 2
All occupations 1039 722 135 151 31 −120***
  1. Notes: “Neither” and “Both” are the number of cases in which both applicants failed and succeeded, respectively, and “Ex-offender” and “Non-offender” are the number of cases in which only the applicant with and without a criminal history, respectively, succeeded to receive a positive response from an employer. “Net discrimination” is the difference between cases given in columns “Ex-offender” and “Non-offender.” The null hypothesis of symmetry between the number of employers who favored the non-offender and the number of employers who favored the ex-offender was evaluated using a two-sided binomial exact test
  2. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05