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Table 12 Enforcement of labor regulations and compliance with social security and employment regulations one by one

From: Enforcement of labor market regulations: heterogeneous compliance and adjustment across gender

Dependent variable =1 if wage employee receives
Pension contributions Health insurance contributions Paid vacation time Minimum wage Annual extra wage Paid sickdays Max weekly hours
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Men
 Log(enforcement measure) 0.103 0.104 0.0987 0.0625 0.102 0.108 −0.0151
[0.0346]*** [0.0340]*** [0.0351]*** [0.0181]*** [0.0352]*** [0.0371]*** [0.0332]
 Observations 148,166 148,166 148,166 148,166 148,166 148,166 148,166
R2 0.279 0.279 0.270 0.246 0.271 0.271 0.065
Women
 Log(enforcement measure) −0.175 −0.169 −0.164 −0.102 − 0.170 − 0.174 − 0.0820
[0.100]* [0.0945]* [0.0928]* [0.0594]* [0.0968]* [0.0951]* [0.0443]*
 Observations 83,906 83,906 83,906 83,906 83,906 83,906 83,906
R2 0.215 0.217 0.183 0.232 0.184 0.188 0.039
Included controls
 Individual characteristics Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Political business cycle variables Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Quality of institutions variable Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Development level variables Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Demand shocks variables Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Province fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Sector fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Year fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Province-time trends Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  1. Source: Own elaboration. Notes: IV estimations. Standard errors clustered at the province-sector level in brackets. Control variables defined as in Table 2
  2. Significant at ***1%, **5%, and *10%
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