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Table 2 Arrival costs of labor inspectors and enforcement of labor regulations

From: Enforcement of labor market regulations: heterogeneous compliance and adjustment across gender

Dependent variable Log(enforcement measure)
Men Women
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Log(arrival cost)*shr04 −0.856 −0.863 − 0.867 −0.661 − 0.671 −0.672
[0.271]*** [0.270]*** [0.269]*** [0.317]** [0.314]** [0.313]**
Individual characteristics Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Political business cycle variables Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Quality of institutions variable Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Development level variables No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Demand shocks variables No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Province fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sector fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Year fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Province-time trends No No Yes No No Yes
F statistic 9.95 10.22 10.40 8.72 9.12 9.22
p value of underid. test 0.0016 0.0014 0.0012 0.01815 0.0161 0.0157
Observations 148,166 148,166 148,166 83,906 83,906 83,906
R 2 0.686 0.688 0.697 0.715 0.721 0.732
  1. Source: Own elaboration. Notes: OLS estimations. Standard errors clustered at the province-sector level in brackets. Individual characteristics include age and age squared, indicators for educational level, marital status and size of the firm, and number of children at home. Political business cycle variables include logarithm of social per capita expenditure and primary result as a percentage of total incomes. Quality of institutions includes logarithm of absenteeism rate in provincial elections. Development level variables include logarithm of the population, logarithm of the per capita household income, and unsatisfied basic needs poverty indicator. Demand shocks includes logarithm of building permits per capita
  2. Significant at ***1%, **5%, and *10%