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Table 3 Enforcement of labor regulations and compliance with mandated benefits

From: Enforcement of labor market regulations: heterogeneous compliance and adjustment across gender

Dependent variable =1 if wage employee receives
Social security benefits Employment benefits
IV OLS IV OLS
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Men
 Log(enforcement measure) 0.103 0.0103 0.0649 0.00578
[0.0343]*** [0.00968] [0.0254]** [0.00707]
 Observations 148,166 148,166 148,166 148,166
R2 0.277 0.286 0.164 0.168
Women
 Log(enforcement measure) −0.167 −0.00486 −0.138 0.00528
[0.0963]* [0.0131] [0.0784]* [0.0108]
 Observations 83,906 83,906 83,906 83,906
R2 0.218 0.253 0.210 0.233
Included controls
 Individual characteristics Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Political business cycle variables Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Quality of institutions variable Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Development level variables Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Demand shocks variables Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Province fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Sector fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Year fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Province-time trends Yes Yes Yes Yes
  1. Source: Own elaboration. Notes: OLS and IV estimations. Standard errors clustered at the province-sector level in brackets. Control variables defined as in Table 2
  2. Significant at ***1%, **5%, and *10%