Skip to main content

Table 7 Enforcement of labor regulations and employment composition

From: Enforcement of labor market regulations: heterogeneous compliance and adjustment across gender

Dependent variable =1 if workers is
Wage employee Formal wage employee Informal wage employee
(1) (2) (3)
Men
 Log(enforcement measure) 0.0469 0.0646 0.0487
[0.0242]* [0.0312]** [0.0271]*
 Observations 202,277 143,956 109,831
R2 0.457 0.725 0.423
Women
 Log(enforcement measure) 0.0415 −0.0303 0.162
[0.0280] [0.0391] [0.0678]**
 Observations 109,461 84,702 48,832
R2 0.472 0.694 0.442
Included controls:
 Individual characteristics Yes Yes Yes
 Political business cycle variables Yes Yes Yes
 Quality of institutions variable Yes Yes Yes
 Development level variables Yes Yes Yes
 Demand shocks variables Yes Yes Yes
 Province fixed effects Yes Yes Yes
 Sector fixed effects Yes Yes Yes
 Year fixed effects Yes Yes Yes
 Province-time trends Yes Yes Yes
  1. Source: Own elaboration. Notes: IV estimations. Omitted category: self-employment. Standard errors clustered at the province-sector level in brackets. Control variables defined as in Table 2
  2. Significant at ***1%, **5%, and *10%
\