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Table 9 Number of labor inspection agencies in each province

From: Enforcement of labor market regulations: heterogeneous compliance and adjustment across gender

Dependent variable =1 if social benefits =1 if emp. benefits Log of hourly formal wages Log of hourly informal wages =1 if worker is
Wage employee Formal wage employee Informal wage employee
(1) (2) (3) (4) (7) (8) (9)
Men
 Log(enforcement measure) 0.107 0.0704 0.0437 −0.0356 0.0529 0.0675 0.0573
[0.0362]*** [0.0267]*** [0.0224]* [0.0441] [0.0261]** [0.0321]** [0.0297]*
 Observations 148,166 148,166 91,231 56,935 202,277 143,956 109,831
R2 0.276 0.163 0.302 0.229 0.456 0.725 0.422
Women
 Log(enforcement measure) −0.146 −0.118 −0.0615 −0.264 0.0527 −0.0148 0.186
[0.0748]* [0.0603]* [0.0654] [0.121]** [0.0282]* [0.0289] [0.0745]**
 Observations 83,906 83,906 59,919 23,987 109,461 84,702 48,832
R2 0.231 0.219 0.340 0.216 0.469 0.694 0.433
Included controls:
 Individual characteristics Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Political business cycle variables Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Quality of institutions variable Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Development level variables Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Demand shocks variables Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Province fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Sector fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Year fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Province-time trends Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  1. Source: Own elaboration. Notes: IV estimations. Omitted category in columns 7–9: self-employment. Standard errors clustered at the province-sector level in brackets. Control variables defined as in Table 2
  2. Significant at ***1%, **5%, and *10%