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Table 21 Overall impact of receiving SSS payouts on expenditure

From: The effect of non-contributory pensions on labour supply and private income transfers: evidence from Singapore

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
VARIABLES Total Durables Durables subset Non-durables Food Tobacco Clothes /Personal care Health Leisure
Received SS × Jan 10.937 25.418 17.144 −13.574 −10.347 − 1.938 −0.111 3.103 1.200
(105.715) (47.887) (44.492) (85.963) (22.578) (1.984) (10.434) (27.815) (32.623)
Received SS × Feb 170.274 78.893 50.216 91.707 18.021 1.001 7.918 −12.850 39.023
(117.335) (49.606) (41.931) (100.368) (21.920) (2.097) (8.396) (26.393) (54.562)
Received SS × Mar 221.451 52.306 50.469 170.399 − 9.369 −2.991 1.487 −14.530 40.765
(179.048) (49.028) (46.316) (167.223) (19.988) (2.499) (7.263) (27.417) (53.174)
Received SS × announce-to-pay 93.081 62.228* 57.854** 33.854 24.822 −1.395 11.131** −34.256 7.342
(95.860) (32.291) (26.022) (84.060) (16.196) (1.899) (5.534) (31.446) (28.729)
Received SS × post-pay 113.425 57.062* 44.246 56.290 −3.672 −1.392 5.915 5.659 11.416
(93.064) (31.672) (27.181) (79.732) (17.224) (2.153) (5.768) (21.905) (26.971)
Mean 1414 84 51 1330 412 8 61 171 122
S.D. 2029 403 346 1934 317 48 111 572 662
Observations 15,970 16,019 16,019 15,970 16,019 15,909 15,914 16,019 16,019
R-squared 0.38 0.13 0.12 0.44 0.73 0.85 0.38 0.20 0.18
  1. Notes:
  2. 1Standard errors clustered at the household level in parentheses. ***, **, and * represent statistical significance at the 1, 5, and 10% level of significance respectively
  3. 2Dependent variables are shown at the top of each column. All expenditure values are reported at the couple (respondent and spouse if respondent is married) and monthly level. Total expenditure excludes cash gifts. Durables include furniture/furnishings, household appliances, home and vehicle repair/maintenance. Durables subset includes only furniture/furnishings and household appliances. Non-durables are based on the difference between total expenditure and durables. The sub-categories of non-durables captured in columns (5)–(9) are not exhaustive
  4. 3Results are estimates of coefficients in Eq. (1). The sample is restricted to respondents who are age-eligible for SSS (i.e. aged 65 and above in 2016), Singapore citizens, live in public housing flats, and with a propensity score of 0.2–0.8
  5. 4Mean and standard deviation statistics are based on pre-announcement levels of the dependent variable for respondents who received SSS payouts