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Table 23 Robustness check for expenditure—accounting for misreporting of SSS payout receipt

From: The effect of non-contributory pensions on labour supply and private income transfers: evidence from Singapore

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
VARIABLES Total Durables Durables subset Non-durables Food Tobacco Clothes /Personal care Health Leisure
Received SS × Jan 8.175 25.60 17.35 −16.55 −10.15 − 1.906 −0.153 4.486 2.436
(107.4) (47.89) (44.52) (88.05) (22.57) (1.971) (10.41) (27.71) (32.47)
Received SS × Feb 170.1 78.94 50.31 91.50 17.96 1.008 7.868 −12.55 39.37
(117.8) (49.56) (41.90) (100.9) (21.93) (2.092) (8.403) (26.39) (54.68)
Received SS × Mar 220.3 54.60 52.25 166.8 −8.503 −2.932 1.698 −12.63 43.40
(182.7) (49.23) (46.55) (170.9) (19.96) (2.487) (7.186) (27.44) (53.21)
Received SS × announce-to-pay × received in 2016 and 2017 135.0 62.74* 60.00** 76.84 15.40 −1.707 11.79* −31.40 12.26
(104.6) (37.41) (29.04) (90.54) (17.26) (2.244) (6.187) (35.42) (36.67)
Received SS × post-pay × received in 2016 and 2017 114.3 60.64* 56.39* 53.70 −9.874 −1.444 6.330 −22.83 5.856
(99.27) (36.04) (31.02) (86.54) (18.61) (2.364) (5.735) (25.25) (32.08)
Observations 15,970 16,019 16,019 15,970 16,019 15,909 15,914 16,019 16,019
R-squared 0.385 0.128 0.124 0.440 0.728 0.848 0.384 0.199 0.184
  1. Notes:
  2. 1Standard errors clustered at the household level in parentheses. ***, **, and * represent statistical significance at the 1, 5, and 10% level of significance respectively
  3. 2Dependent variables are shown at the top of each column. All expenditure values are reported at the couple (respondent and spouse if respondent is married) and monthly level. Total expenditure excludes cash gifts. Durables include furniture/furnishings, household appliances, home and vehicle repair/maintenance. Durables subset includes only furniture/furnishings and household appliances. Non-durables are based on the difference between total expenditure and durables. The sub-categories of non-durables captured in columns (5)–(9) are not exhaustive
  4. 3Results are estimates of coefficients in Eq. (3). In view of space constraint, we show only the coefficients from interacting the policy variables with the dummy which represents the subset of individuals who reported receiving SSS payout at least once in 2016 and at least once in 2017. The suppressed category of individuals is those who reported not receiving SSS payout in 2016 and 2017. The sample is restricted to respondents who are age-eligible for SSS (i.e. aged 65 and above in 2016), Singapore citizens, live in public housing flats, and with a propensity score of 0.2–0.8