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Table 25 Robustness check for expenditure—using non-age-eligible sample as a control group (propensity score 0.2–0.8)

From: The effect of non-contributory pensions on labour supply and private income transfers: evidence from Singapore

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
VARIABLES Total Durables Durables subset Non-durables Food Tobacco Clothes /Personal care Health Leisure
Received SS × Jan 111.0 5.357 −12.66 105.7 7.445 −3.227 −4.391 47.79 35.54
(153.9) (38.17) (34.88) (145.2) (22.58) (2.466) (12.17) (40.10) (48.63)
Received SS × Feb 153.5 73.85 37.24 79.19 19.53 −1.315 13.62 17.77 44.15
(170.9) (45.52) (37.66) (158.9) (21.25) (1.995) (10.31) (42.65) (66.39)
Received SS × Mar 470.8** 58.21 40.48 413.1** 3.183 −3.691 7.109 58.16 86.22
(206.6) (48.21) (44.08) (192.1) (18.80) (2.598) (8.428) (41.05) (60.52)
Received SS × announce-to-pay 228.1* 31.31 14.87 199.6* 26.94* −1.533 20.49*** 37.98 35.32
(125.3) (25.85) (19.94) (114.9) (15.67) (2.126) (6.378) (37.39) (35.69)
Received SS × post-pay 262.7** 63.79*** 46.10** 198.2* 6.973 −0.766 13.32** 40.09 32.94
(124.5) (23.33) (18.26) (114.1) (16.52) (2.258) (6.467) (34.54) (31.12)
Observations 17,387 17,440 17,440 17,387 17,440 17,340 17,335 17,440 17,440
R-squared 0.582 0.158 0.120 0.598 0.767 0.775 0.500 0.214 0.206
  1. Notes:
  2. 1Standard errors clustered at the household level in parentheses. ***, **, and * represent statistical significance at the 1, 5, and 10% level of significance respectively
  3. 2Dependent variables are shown at the top of each column. All expenditure values are reported at the couple (respondent and spouse if respondent is married) and monthly level. Total expenditure excludes cash gifts. Durables include furniture/furnishings, household appliances, home and vehicle repair/maintenance. Durables subset includes only furniture/furnishings and household appliances. Non-durables are based on the difference between total expenditure and durables. The sub-categories of non-durables captured in columns (5)–(9) are not exhaustive
  4. 3Results are estimates of coefficients in Eq. (1). The sample is restricted to respondents who are Singapore citizens, live in public housing flats, and with a propensity score of 0.2–0.8. The treated group consists of individuals aged 65 and above in 2016 who received SSS payouts, while the control group consists of younger individuals aged 56 to 63 in 2016 who are not age eligible to receive SSS payouts yet