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Table 5 Correlates of voluntary separation, Cox Proportional Hazard Model

From: Criminal background and job performance

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
All All All All Sales Sales Sales Sales Cust. Serv. Cust. Serv. Cust. Serv. Cust. Serv.
pre_crim − 0.1894*** − 0.1726*** − 0.1730*** − 0.1780*** − 0.1750** − 0.1574** − 0.1571** − 0.1582** − 0.2136** − 0.1988** − 0.2000** − 0.2115**
(− 3.35) (− 3.21) (− 3.28) (− 3.47) (− 2.46) (− 2.32) (− 2.38) (− 2.34) (− 2.32) (− 2.15) (− 2.12) (− 2.55)
sales 0.3762*** 0.3773*** 0.3763*** 0.3811***         
(5.94) (5.76) (5.65) (5.32)         
school   0.0393 0.0405 0.0492*   − 0.0026 − 0.0026 0.0029   0.0902* 0.0938** 0.1009**
  (1.42) (1.44) (1.73)   (− 0.11) (− 0.11) (0.11)   (1.91) (2.05) (2.02)
fewer_short_jobs   0.0178 0.0164 0.0210   − 0.0141 − 0.0159 − 0.0104   0.0807** 0.0806** 0.0856**
  (0.84) (0.75) (0.93)   (− 0.58) (− 0.61) (− 0.38)   (2.04) (2.02) (2.27)
longest_job   − 0.0374*** − 0.0381*** − 0.0388***   − 0.0460*** − 0.0463*** − 0.0472***   − 0.0180 − 0.0184 − 0.0216
  (− 3.16) (− 3.14) (− 3.23)   (− 3.54) (− 3.39) (− 3.41)   (− 0.87) (− 0.89) (− 1.06)
badservice    − 0.0594     − 0.0602     − 0.0413  
   (− 1.24)     (− 0.96)     (−0.69)  
confidence    − 0.0007     − 0.0036     0.0189  
   (− 0.01)     (− 0.11)     (0.10)  
rulebreaker1    − 0.0136     0.0198     − 0.1079**  
   (− 0.45)     (0.68)     (− 2.39)  
open1     − 0.0980***     − 0.1253***     − 0.0477
    (− 3.07)     (− 4.24)     (− 0.65)
open2     − 0.1535**     0.0108     − 0.1273
    (− 2.03)     (0.03)     (− 1.15)
open3     − 0.0133     0.0214     − 0.0765
    (− 0.48)     (0.98)     (− 1.47)
con1     − 0.0282     − 0.0164     − 0.0503
    (− 0.94)     (− 0.39)     (− 1.52)
con2     − 0.0427     − 0.0463     − 0.0394
    (− 0.99)     (− 0.70)     (− 1.17)
con3     0.0111     0.1378     0.0223
    (0.12)     (0.70)     (0.22)
extra1     0.0642**     0.0925***     0.0093
    (2.14)     (2.60)     (0.14)
extra2     0.0481**     0.0398     0.0787
    (1.96)     (1.49)     (1.19)
extra3     − 0.0430     − 0.0503     − 0.0395
    (− 1.29)     (− 1.37)     (− 0.58)
agree1     − 0.0428     − 0.0652     0.0052
    (− 0.94)     (− 1.07)     (0.11)
agree2     − 0.0092     0.0258     − 0.0793
    (−0.29)     (1.28)     (− 1.31)
agree3     − 0.0695     0.0852     − 0.0283
    (− 1.30)     (0.24)     (− 0.43)
neur1     − 0.0207     − 0.0262     − 0.0122
    (− 0.74)     (− 0.89)     (− 0.21)
neur2     − 0.0121     − 0.0312     0.0209
    (− 0.47)     (− 1.26)     (0.46)
neur3     − 0.0466     − 0.0620     − 0.0237
    (− 0.91)     (− 1.00)     (− 0.54)
firm_id dummies Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
location dummies Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Observations 10,699 10,699 10,699 10,699 5402 5402 5402 5402 5297 5297 5297 5297
Pseudo R-squared 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.006 0.008 0.009 0.009 0.009
  1. Sample contains only hired workers for whom information about criminal background is available. t-statistics in parentheses. Standard errors clustered by firm
  2. *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < .01